Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR)

PLEASE NOTE: While TOAR has not been completed yet, the IGAC SSC recognizes that the project has come along well and is on track to fulfill its major objectives, i.e. publication of the first comprehensive assessment on tropospheric ozone, and publication of a wide variety of ozone metrics around the world. The project will be reviewed in 2019, at which time plans for a second phase will be developed; in the meantime, expansion and enhancement of the TOAR Surface Ozone Database is ongoing.

TOAR Assessment Report:  Papers published so far
The assessment report is being published as a series of papers in the peer-reviewed journal, Elementa – Science of the Anthropocene.   Papers published so far are available through a Special Feature of Elementa:

  • Mills G, Pleijel H, Malley CS, Sinha B, Cooper OR, Schultz MG, Neufeld HS, Simpson D, Sharps K,  Feng Z,  Gerosa G,  Harmens H, Kobayashi K,  Saxena P,  Paoletti E,  Sinha V, Xu X, Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Present-day tropospheric ozone distribution and trends relevant to vegetation. Elem Sci Anth. 2018;6(1):47. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.302
  • Gaudel, A, et al. 2018. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Present-day distribution and trends of tropospheric ozone relevant to climate and global atmospheric chemistry model evaluation. Elem Sci Anth, 6: 39. DOI: https://www.elementascience.org/articles/10.1525/elementa.291
  • Lefohn AS, Malley CS, Smith L, Wells B, Hazucha M, Simon H, Naik V, Mills G, Schultz MG, Paoletti E, De Marco A, Xu X, Zhang L, Wang T, Neufeld HS, Musselman RC, Tarasick D, Brauer M, Feng Z, Tang H, Kobayashi K, Sicard P, Solberg S, Gerosa G. Tropospheric ozone assessment report: Global ozone metrics for climate change, human health, and crop/ecosystem research. Elem Sci Anth. 2018;6(1):28. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.279
  • Fleming*, Zoë. L., Ruth M. Doherty*, Erika von Schneidemesser, Christopher S. Malley, Owen R. Cooper, Joseph P. Pinto, Augustin Colette, Xiaobin Xu, David Simpson, Martin G. Schultz, Allen S. Lefohn, Samera Hamad, Raeesa Moolla, Sverre Solberg, Zhaozhong Feng (2018), Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Present-day ozone distribution and trends relevant to human health,  Elem Sci Anth. 2018;6(1):12. DOI: https://www.elementascience.org/article/10.1525/elementa.273/.
  • Young*, P. J., V. Naik*, A. M. Fiore, A. Gaudel, J. Guo, M. Y. Lin, J. L. Neu, D. D. Parrish, H. E. Rieder, J. L. Schnell, S. Tilmes, O. Wild, L. Zhang, J. R. Ziemke, J. Brandt, A. Delcloo, R. M. Doherty, C. Geels, M. I. Hegglin, L. Hu, U. Im, R. Kumar, A. Luhar, L. Murray, D. Plummer, J. Rodriguez, A. Saiz-Lopez, M. G. Schultz, M. T. Woodhouse and G. Zeng (2018), Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Assessment of global-scale model performance for global and regional ozone distributions, variability, and trends, Elem Sci Anth. 2018;6(1):10. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.265
  • Schultz, M. G. and 96 co-authors (2017), Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report:  Database and metrics data of global surface ozone observations, Elem Sci. Anth, 5, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.244
  • Chang, K-L, I. Petropavlovskikh, O. R. Cooper, M. G. Schultz and T. Wang (2017), Regional trend analysis of surface ozone observations from monitoring networks in eastern North America, Europe and East Asia, Elem Sci Anth., 5:50, DOI: http://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.243

TOAR Database of Surface Ozone Metrics
TOAR has produced a relational database of global surface ozone observations, and generated a comprehensive suite of ozone metrics products including standard statistics, health and vegetation impact metrics, and trend information.  The metrics are made available through a common data portal and a web interface as described by Schultz et al. (2017) in the TOAR Special Feature described above.  Pre-compiled surface ozone metrics data sets can be downloaded from PANGAEA.

TOAR Database

Open Comment Period
Prior to peer-review all TOAR papers will be available for a 30-day Open Comment period, with the papers posted to this website as they become available. Please visit the Open Comments webpage for additional information.

Background:
Tropospheric ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. Since 1990 a large portion of the anthropogenic emissions that react in the atmosphere to produce ozone have shifted from North America and Europe to Asia. This rapid shift, coupled with limited ozone monitoring in developing nations, has left scientists unable to answer the most basic questions: Which regions of the world have the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution? Is ozone continuing to decline in nations with strong emission controls? To what extent is ozone increasing in the developing world? How can the atmospheric sciences community facilitate access to the ozone metrics necessary for quantifying ozone’s impact on human health and crop/ecosystem productivity? TOAR is designed to answer these questions through the development of an assessment report based on expert opinion and analysis, and the generation of a range of ozone metrics at hundreds of sites around the world.

Mission:
To provide the research community with an up-to-date scientific assessment of tropospheric ozone’s global distribution and trends from the surface to the tropopause.

Goals:

  1. Produce the first tropospheric ozone assessment report based on the peer-reviewed literature and new analyses.
  2. Generate easily accessible, documented data on ozone exposure and dose metrics at hundreds of measurement sites around the world (urban and non-urban), freely accessible for research on the global-scale impact of ozone on climate, human health and crop/ecosystem productivity.

Organization:
TOAR is a science effort initiated by IGAC, and developed by an international team of experts. TOAR receives financial and logistical support from IGAC, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and The World Meteorological Organization (an agency of the United Nations).


Recent Events

TOAR Workshop 1.04
IGAC Sponsored
Jülich, Germany
IGACnews Workshop Summary
Workshop Summary (Full Version)665.2 KB
-
TOAR Workshop 1.03
IGAC Sponsored
Beijing, China
IGACnews Workshop Summary
Workshop Summary (Full Version)1.59 MB
-
TOAR Workshop 1.02
IGAC Sponsored
Madrid, Spain
IGACnews Workshop Summary
Workshop Summary (Full Version)257.28 KB
-
TOAR Workshop 1.01
IGAC Sponsored
Boulder, CO, USA
IGACnews Workshop Summary
Workshop Summary (Full Version)302.47 KB
-

Publications

Mills G, Pleijel H, Malley CS, Sinha B, Cooper OR, Schultz MG, Neufeld HS, Simpson D, Sharps K,  Feng Z,  Gerosa G,  Harmens H, Kobayashi K,  Saxena P,  Paoletti E,  Sinha V, Xu X, Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Present-day tropospheric ozone distribution and trends relevant to vegetation. Elem Sci Anth. 2018;6(1):47. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.302

Gaudel, A, et al. 2018. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Present-day distribution and trends of tropospheric ozone relevant to climate and global atmospheric chemistry model evaluation. Elem Sci Anth, 6: 39. DOI: https://www.elementascience.org/articles/10.1525/elementa.291/

Lefohn, AS, Malley, CS, Smith, L, Wells, B, Hazucha, M, Simon, H, Naik, V, Mills, G, Schultz, MG, Paoletti, E, De Marco, A, Xu, X, Zhang, L, Wang, T, Neufeld, HS, Musselman, RC, Tarasick, D, Brauer, M, Feng, Z, Tang, H, Kobayashi, K, Sicard, P, Solberg, S and Gerosa, G 2018 Tropospheric ozone assessment report: Global ozone metrics for climate change, human health, and crop/ecosystem research. Elem Sci Anth, 6: 28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.279.

Fleming ZL, Doherty RM, von Schneidemesser E, Malley CS, Cooper OR, Pinto JP, et al.. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Present-day ozone distribution and trends relevant to human health. Elem Sci Anth. 2018;6(1):12. DOI:http://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.273.

Young PJ, Naik V, Fiore AM, Gaudel A, Guo J, Lin MY, et al.. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Assessment of global-scale model performance for global and regional ozone distributions, variability, and trends. Elem Sci Anth. 2018;6(1):10. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.265.